Music + Society.


Ayo Bankole. (Ojo Maaro) 1:38     
Folk. Rainfall, corn, succor. 

Everton Dacres   (Jah Jah Ah Come) 6:37.  Reggae. Dem raiding & killing.

Brenda Fassie. (Vulindlela) 3:30
Afropop.  Open the gates. 


Zimbabwe & Venezuela Economic Crises

Zimbabwe one third the population of Venezuela and one tenth its economy underwent scenarios in the 1990s similar to the current Venezuelan economic crisis.  Growing a mixed system of production has proven difficult resulting in economic and humanitarian crises.  The Zimbabwean situation in the 1990s stemmed from poor economic management and land reform policies.  For the Venezuelan economy, converting resources from crude oil to enough goods and services at free market prices has been daunting.

The challenge in both countries has been how to achieve economic growth versus decline, surplus basic goods rather than scarcity. Under Mugabe, 1999 to 2009, manufacturing fell almost 30%, food production about 50%, and unemployment was up to 80%.  Pressure from the west or the global markets have tended to create more domestic stress.  

One example, tobacco can be more of a disinvestment for the Zimbabwean or any economy and gold is not food, shelter, clothing or clean air.  For Venezuela oil price fluctuations or the impact of shale oil on global prices 2014 has induced a shriveling economy and food shortages. Making weak democratic institutions weaker has not helped either as the Venezuelan president expanded his powers and boosted money supply leading to prices more than doubling every month.  

There is hardly an excuse for averting diversification and the inducements of globalization remain a challenge. Developing the service sector or exploring options in agriculture or industry have not been fully explored in both countries. Literacy is high in the two countries and population density is favorable so hope remains. The leaders in both countries have driven the economies more than molded them and the priorities which were misguided and subsequent pains of hyper-inflation are lessons for human development.

Alayande, J. F.  (MURP, Pi Sigma Alpha)

Delta Airlines.                                           325 Destinations in 60 + countries. 

Government. People. Business.







(4) fax             (6) 1,2,3      


(1) w               (2) tele         (3) radio      (5) signal



The weapons we fight with are not the weapons of the world. On the contrary, they have divine power to demolish strongholds.

2 Corinthians 10:4

If a global partnership to curb the arms race, improve the human environment, defuse population explosion and supply required momentum to development efforts is not forged soon, I very much fear that the problems will have reached staggering proportions that they will be beyond our capacity to control.

                              U. Thant

Government. People. Business.



Planning Recommendations for the Central Areas of the City of Rensselaer. 

Civics Lessons : David Hackett Souter.